Model: A color measurement
scale or system that numerically specifies the perceived attributes
of color. Used in computer graphics applications and by color
Space: A three-dimensional
geometric representation of the colors that can be seen and/or
generated using a certain color model.
Built-in color management architecture for Apple Macintosh computers.
Third-party vendors utilize the ColorSync framework to provide
device calibration, device characterization, and device profile-building
Device-specific color information that is a characterization of
a device’s color rendering and reproduction capabilities. Monitor
profiles, scanner profiles, and printer profiles are utilized
in a color management system such as Apple ColorSync to help the
devices communicate color information with each other. Profiles
are created by calibration and/or characterization method.
The range of different colors that can be interpreted by a color
model or generated by a specific device.
The phenomenon where two colors appear to match under one light
source, yet do not match under a different light source. Two such
colors are called a metameric pair.
A enclosed area with controlled lighting that is used in graphic
arts studios, service bureaus, and printing companies as a stable
environment for evaluating proofs and press sheets.
See D50 & D65.
50 : The CIE Standard
Illuminant that represents a color temperature of 5000°K.
This is the color temperature that is most widely used in graphic
arts industry viewing booths. See Illuminants D.
The CIE Standard Illuminant that represents a color temperature
Describes a color space that can be defined using the full gamut
of human vision ("standard observer") independent of
the color-rendering capabilities of any specific device.
The massive band of electromagnetic waves that pass through the
air in different sizes, as measured by wavelength. Different wavelengths
have different properties, but most are invisible–and some completely
undetectable–to human beings. Only wavelengths that are between
380 and 720 nanometers in size are visible, producing light. Invisible
waves outside the visible spectrum include gamma rays, x-rays,
microwaves and radio waves.
Or tonal range compression. The color space coordinates of a color
space with a larger gamut are reduced to accommodate the smaller
gamut of a destination color space. For example, the gamut of
photographic film is compressed for representation in the smaller
CMYK gamut used for four-color process printing. See Gamut.
Converting the coordinates of two or more color spaces into a
common color space. Often results in tonal range compression.
See Gamut Compression.
Series of test targets and tools for color characterization established
by ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Committee IT8
for Digital Data Exchange Standards. Different IT8 targets are
used to characterize different devices such as scanners and printers.
The process of viewing color of the final print BEFORE printing!
This is done by sending the file's color data to a calibrated
monitor THROUGH an ICC printer profile. This allows us to make
adjustments for the physical (absorption \ reflecting) characteristics
of the paper \ ink combination.
The three tristimulus values that combine to define or generate
a specific color, such as R 255/G 255/B 0. Tristimulus data does
not completely describe a color–the illuminant must also be defined.
Also, in device-dependent color models such as RGB, the capabilities
of the viewer or color-rendering device must also be defined.